Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
Owain Brogyntyn and his Family
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
The Unofficial "History" of Elystan of Powys
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
The Royal Family of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam


NOTE:  If you have accessed this page via web search, it is an incomplete draft of research still in progress and is subject to much revision.  It cannot be accessed from our website, but web search engines are unable to distinguish between "published" pages and those "off-site" notes stored by the site author for possible future use.
                                          THE WELSH WLEDIG
                                             By Darrell Wolcott
         No extant manuscripts define the office called Wledig which was held by various men in the late-4th to early 6th centuries.  Some historians have equated it with "king" or "ruler" yet men known to have ruled the various Celtic tribal territories are not called Wledig, but brenin. We suspect it was a military title as opposed to a civilian admistrator, and was probably based on a Roman model.  Some early writers incorrectly equated Wledig with Imperator, a title which had long since been limited to the Emperor himself.
        In 4th century Britain, Rome had established four provinces; each had both a governor to oversee civil-service functions and a Magister Militum who was a regional military commander.  The latter answered directly to the Dux Britianniarum, the top commander for the entire diocese of Britain.  We suggest that when Rome withdrew from the island and it became self-governing, the indigenous Celts duplicated that model and called these regional military commanders "Wledig" or "rural commanders" from the Welsh "gwledig" meaning "rural ".  By the 6th century, new forms of organization designed to combat the Saxon threat made the Wledig obsolete.  The Celts no longer controlled the lands which had constituted two of the four Roman provinces.
        The names of all the men appointed as Wledig are not known, only a handful being so identified in extant manuscripts and primarily in pedigree material.  The total required number would have changed as territory was lost to the Saxons, while the largest (Britannia Prima, which had comprised the far west) was likely divided after the Irish were expelled from north wales.
        We don't know exactly when the Roman title for the office was changed to its Welsh form, but probably not until the era of Vortigern since his predecessors as "overking" were the remnant family of the usurping Roman emperor, Magnus Maximus.  Prior to his elevation to the purple in 383, he had been Magister Militum for one of the provinces if Britain, probably Britannia Secunda in the far north.  The Welsh remember him as Maxen Wledig although that title still lay a couple generations in his future.
        When Maxen was raised to the purple in 383, we don't think it was simply the Roman troops who "elected" him but would include, among those who approved his elevation, the civilian civitas (the city-based network of administrators and bureaucrats) and the Celtic tribal leaders (mostly in the north of the island, but also those in lands later called Gwent, Gloucester, Hereford, Shropshire and Cheshire).  Whether the Demaetae in southwest Wales were also included is open to question, but north Wales was then controlled by invading Irish and were almost certainly not considered legitimate Britians. We should pause a moment to posit two entirely different groups of native Celts had evolved by this era.
         In the flatlands of middle, eastern and southern Britain, the old tribal system was gone, its families now living in the Roman style in cities and its wealthy class in sumptuous stone manors on gardened estates.  But in the rugged high country of north and west Britain, the family kindreds had remained tribal in nature and were little changed from pre-Roman times.  Forbidden to make war, their leaders had retained their skills with weapons by hunting game in their thick forestlands.  Their lands were unsuited for grand Roman cities and the coming of Rome had affected their daily lives little more than bringing a new lord to collect his taxation and recruit men for his army.  There was little social contact between the two groups of Britains; the former considered themselves "civilized" and thought the latter "barbarians".
      Accordingly, Maxen Wledig would have appointed his regional commanders from the "barbarian" tribes; he needed men with military skills, not desk jockies.  We suspect two of his appointments were men not called "Wledig" in pedigrees, but each was a tribal leader from widely separated areas and each is said to have married ladies related to him.  In Gwent, Tudwal ap Turmwr was married to Gratiana, daughter of Maxen[1].  In Gododdin, Edern ap Padern was married to Gwawl ferch Coel Hen[2].  We think Maxen had married Elen ferch Coel Hen, so Gwawl was his sister-in-law[3].  Both of these ladies would have been about 13 years old in 383 and we doubt the marriages were simply a coincidence.  While Edern's tribal lands were neighboring those of Coel Hen, Gwent lay far to the south of either.  We suggest that Maxen was following the example of other Roman emperors by requiring his "Caesars" to marry into the emperor's family.  Maxen likely appointed at least one other Wledig, perhaps two, for the other provinces, but neither names nor marriages are recorded.
         When Maxen was finally slain in 388, the Roman General Stilicho was sent to Britain to restore Roman authority and assist in stopping the raids by the northern Picts.  He likely made use of the military forces led by the Wledigs since they still considered themselves Roman citizens subject to whoever the Emperor may have been.  It was only when Stilicho withdrew in 405 for more urgent business on the continent that Britain expressed concern for their island's defense.  They asked Honorius for replacement troops but were told none were available and they should "look to themselves" for their defense.  After two abortive attempts to select a new "Emperor" for themselves, they finally found, in 407, a man up to the task.  Of unknown ancestry, Constantine III apparently had made Britain secure from outside invaders and felt his next step should be to force his recognition as a legitimate Emperor of the West.  He succeeded for a short time, but was arrested and slain in 411; he had made his son Constans a "Caesar" but he was killed even before his father was captured.
        Back in Britian, a coup swept out of office all the official bureaucracy of the Romans.  Zosimus, writing abbout 498, tells us "the Britons took up arms and, fighting for themselves, freed the cities from the barbarian pressure" and that they "no longer obeyed Roman laws". Our view of this purge of all things Roman in Britain is that the Celtic tribal leaders, those "barbarians" of the mountains, decided to take matters into their own hands.  They had cooperated with the city folks in their retention of the Roman-style civilization when they'd help establish two emperors, given their military assistance to those Romans and undoubtedly lost sons on the battlefields.  All while the "civilized" group of Britains luxurated in their baths and attended concerts, begrudging their single contribution to the effort...paying taxes. 
        It was the Celtic form of government that was put in place of the Roman bureaucracy; the selection of a king from the royal family by the land owners of the kingdom.  The designation of a "royal family", since none previously existed in Britain, was their first order of business.  They turned to the most senior of the tribal leaders, Coel Hen, now past 70 years of age.  The man he nominated seems to have been intended to appease both groups of Britains, including the now minority element who had been staunchly Roman royalists: Custinnen son of Maxen Wledig.  The young man, now in his 30's, had trained as a cleric and is often called Blessed Custinnen.  And he was the grandson of Coel Hen and probably brother-in-law of Constantine III.  Having no military experience of his own, he appointed regional commanders to serve under the overall leadership of Coel's son Garbanian as dux.  These may have been the initial corps of men called Wledig.
       For the northern province, he selected Cunedda ap Edern.  The marriage cited for Cunedda is a lady from Penllyn in Wales, but that marriage must have occurred many years later when he transferred from the far north to Gwynedd.  In 411, he was a man in his late 20's; by the time he moved to Wales he had several sons and must have taken a wife about the time Custinnen was installed as overking.  A daughter of Custinnen not only fits chronologically, but follows the pattern of requiring the Wledig to marry into the king's immediate family.
          For the western provences, he probably chose Cadell ap Cadeyrn of Ddrynllwg, the region which now comprises Cheshire and and the portion of Shropshire north of the Severn.  His marriage is not recorded, but a daughter of Custinnen's daughter Seferus would fit chronologically.  Our identifying him as a Wledig is based on his role of evicting the Irish from northeast Wales in 427, a date suggested by the Ninnius story.  We doubt such a mission would have been undertaken by an independent tribal leader at this point without the consent, and probably at the direction of, the British overking.  It seems clear, however, that new lands subdued by the Wledigs eventually became a part of their tribal lands after the office of overking no longer was a ruling central authority.
         Finally, we think Gwrtheyrn ap Gwydol was named Wledig for the southwest;  Tudwal ap Turmwr was now about 55 and ready to retire from active soldiering.  While the 9th century inscription on Eliseg's Pillar says Gwrtheyrn (later to be called Vortigern) married Seferus ferch Maxen Wledig, we suspect the men of Powys in 825 simply confused her with the daughter of Custinnen ap Maxen, also named Seferus.  A daughter of Maxen could not have been born later than 389, and more likely nearer to 380.  But a daughter of Custinnen should occur c. 405; we date Vortigern to c. 390 and his known sons to c. 420-425 and don't think a wife older than himself would have been anyone's choice nor become a mother in her 40's.  However, we would date his appointment as Wledig near 418, not 411 when Custinnen first took office.  By that time, Seferys ferch Custinnen would have been about 13/14 years old, the time when young ladies were typically married off.
         Custinnen seems to have been an effective leader, keeping Britain safe from outside invaders.  The Roman Empire was under attack from hordes of Goths, Vandals and others swarming into Gaul and Spain and made no move to enter Britain to reestablish their authority.  When he died about 525, his eldest son Ambrosius was yet a teenager.  The tribal leaders named Gwrtheyrn as the interim king.  We doubt he had been instrumental in the death of the king as related by Geoffrey of Monmouth, but if he were it was for reasons having wide support among the leading men of the island.  Historians know the man primarily by his title "Vortigern" from "gor" meaning "over" and "tigern", a variation of "teyrn" meaning "sovereign".
         We suspect he retained both Cunedda and Cadell as Wledig of their respective regions, replacing himself with Cynfawr ap Tudwal of Gwent.  That man was a grandson of Maxen Wledig and required no special marriage to be connected to the royal family.  Around 435/440, Vortigern moved to dislodge the Irish from northwest Wales as Cadell had done in the lands east of the Clwyd.  We suspect he did not assign the job to Cadell on the grounds he didn't wish a single man to control the entire west.  He shifted Cunedda to Gwenydd as a new provincial territoiry, replacing him in the far north with Ceretic ap Cynloyp.  We have no record of his marriage, but he may also have been given a lady from the lineage of Maxen.
        Earlier in Vortigern's reign, about 428, he had reacted to growing fears that Rome might be in position to reclaim Britain.  A germanic tribe from across the Channel was being evicted from their lands by the barbarians pressing westwards, appealed to Vortigern for a new home and were settled on the Isle of Thanet in northeast Kent.  In return, these men agreed to protect that coast from incoming invaders, i.e. returning Roman armies. 
       About 437, Ambrosius son of Custinnen attained full-age to assume a kingship and asked Vortigern to step down.  The overking refused to resign, either because the power had gone to his head or because he didn't believe it wise to change leaders while the island was threatened by both Picts in the north and both Roman and barbarian hordes across the Channel to the east.  A battle between the two men failed to dislodge Vortigern, but the claim of Ambrosius was supported by most of the leading men of Britain.
       To shore up his position, Vortigern asked his Saxon mercenaries on Thanet to send for more men from their native lands.  Thousands of Saxons, Angles and Jutes accepted the invitation and sailed to Britain.  His domestic opponents backed down in the face of this army of men serving Vortigern, but sent an appeal to Consul Aetius for military help.  None was offered.  Instead, Vortigern's opponents withheld their tax revenues so he could no longer feed his army of mercenaries.  They began looting the countryside, burning towns, seizing livestock, grain and other foodstuffs.
        War with the Saxons raged for several years, requiring all Britains to unite behind Vortigern against a common enemy.  Each won and lost various battles, neither side able to strike a fatal blow to the other.  Meanwhile, he raised Amlawdd ap Cynwal to Wledig status, marrying him to Gwen ap Cunedda.  When Cunedda retired from military activity, his son Einion Arth "the bear" was named to his Wledig post.  Already a maternal descendant of the "royal family", Einion was given to wife the daughter of the king of Picts in a move to make peace with them during the Saxon wars.
         Around 452, a truce was finally struck between Vortigern and Hergest, leader of the Saxons.  Both had lost close relatives in the fighting; Hergest lost his brother Horsa while Vortigern had lost a son, Cadeyrn.  Under the terms of the peace agreement, the Saxons would receive all of Kent as their home and a son of Vortigern would marry a daughter of Hergest.