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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam

                                  ROMULUS, LEGENDARY EPONYM OF ROME
                                                 By Darrell Wolcott
 
         It is the traditional pedigree of Romulus, not the story of his founding of Rome, which concerns us.  Ancient historians uniformly date the birth of Romulus as 771BC, a date we shall accept for our inquiry.  What we question are the pedigrees assigned to him which, if valid, would place him in the 15th generation after Aeneas of Troy.
 
        The earliest Romulus pedigrees are those offered by Livy[1] and Dionysius of Helicarnassensis[2], two historians writing near the first decade of the 1st century BC or over 700 years after the fact.  Livy appears to confuse Silvius son of Ascanius with Silvius son of Aeneas, but then quickly rattles off a string of names which form a link down to Romulus:
                             Aeneas
                             Ascanius
                             Silvius
                             Aenean Silvius
                             Latinus Silvius
                             Alba
                             Atrys
                             Capys
                             Capetus
                             Tiberinus
                             Agrippa
                             Romulus Silvius
                             Aventinus
                             Proca
                             Numitor
                             Rhea Silvia
                             Romulus
 
        When we correct his list to identify Silvius as a son of Aeneas and much younger brother of Ascanius, then Romulus occurs 15th after Aeneas.  But while Livy says that Aeneas Silvius was the son of Silvius and that his heir was Latinus, he does not say how the next 5 names were related either to Latinus or to each other.  Then Tiberinus was simply "succeeded" by Agrippa and his son Romulus Silvius, who bequeathed his power to Aventinus.  Proca was simply "the next king", whose son was Numitor.  He does call Rhea Silva the daughter of Numitor and mother of Romulus.  Depending on the unstated relationships between the other men, Romulus could represent the 8th generation after Aeneas rather than the 15th.
 
          Dionysius correctly identifies Silvius as a brother of Ascanius, a son of Aeneas by his second wife, Lavinia of Italy.  His list cites these links down to Romulus:
 
                                Aeneas
                                Silvius
                                Aeneas
                                Latinus
                                Albas
                                Capetus
                                Capys
                                Calpetus
                                Tiberinus
                                Agripppa
                                Alladius
                                Aventinus
                                Procas
                                Numitor
                                    x
                                Romulus
 
         Dionysius does not name the mother of Romulus, but says he was the grandson of Numitor.  His list does make Romulus occur 15th after Aeneas, but instead of telling us the relationships between all the other men, he cites the term in years each man ruled. Rather than carrying his data down to the birth of Romulus, he speaks of the year  Romulus became king.  Others says this was 753BC, while Dionysius claims it was 432 years after the Fall of Troy.  Clearly he was using the dating of Eratosthenes since 753 + 432 = 1185BC. 
 
         It should be observed that Dionysius and Livy were contemporaries and should have had access to the same ancient sources on which to base their History.  Yet Livy knew nothing about the number of years each link in the pedigree ruled, and did not say how many years Romulus occurred after the Fall of Troy.  With only a couple exceptions, the same names form both pedigrees. But Dionysius apparently invented lengths of reign which would fill the time gap between Aeneas and Romulus to accord with the Eratosthenes dating of the Fall of Troy[3].
 
          While we do not know which ancient sources may have been lost by 200AD, the Histories of Livy and Dionysius were still available to Dio Cassius[4] when he wrote his History.  His list of links from Aeneas to Romulus is much shorter:
 
                                 Aeneas
                                 Silvius
                                 Aeneas
                                 Latinus
                                 Capys or Pastis*
                                 Tiberinus
                                 Amulius
                                 Aventinus
                                 Procas
                                 Numitor
                                 Rhea Silva
                                 Romulus
 
        *Book 1 of Dio's History is now lost, but was extant when two 12th century AD men wrote Histories which cited Dio.  Zonaras and Tzetzes agree in essence with what was contained in Dio's Book 1, but differ as to the name of this single link in the Romulus pedigree
 
        Thus, Dio Cassius shows Romulus 11th after Aeneas, dropping 4 names from the earlier lists.  And he does not claim they were all sons succeeding their father.  His wording says only that "Latinus was succeeded by Pastis, and Tiberinus became the next ruler"; all 3 men might have been members of a single generation.  Both Amulius and Aventinus are said to have been killed as opposed to living full lives and Dionysius had said only that one succeeded the other.  Again, Romulus could have been in the 8th generation after Aeneas and two of those generations were probably females.  Certainly Rhea Silva was, and we suspect it was the mother of Numitor and daughter of Aventinus who married an outsider, Procas. 
 
        Six male generations and two females generations, using the same generational gaps which underlie all our chronological analysis, should span 230/235 years.  Thus, 235 + 771 = 1006BC for a revised dating of the birth of Aeneas.  If he were about 37 years old when Troy fell, as our analysis indicates, then the Fall of Troy could have occurred in 968BC as we suggested in an earlier paper[5].
 
        When portrayed alongside the Sparta king list, the corrected Romulus pedigree confirms the time interval down to contemporary events in each list: the 771BC birth of Romulus and the 776BC date of the First Olympiad.
 
           1070BC  Capys(a)                 1060BC  Heracles(a)
                                 l                                         l
             1035  Anchises                        1030  Hyllus
                          l                                         l
             1005  Aeneas                      1000  Cleodaeus
                          l       FALL OF TROY               l
                955  Silvius      968BC        965  Aristomachus
                         l                                          l
           925  Aeneas Silvius                 935  Aristodemus 
                         l                                          l
          890  male generation                905  Eurysthenes  
                         l                                          l
         860  male generation                      875  Agis  
                         l                                          l
        830  female generation                 840  Lycurgus 
                         l                                          l
             815  Numitor                     810  regency of Lycurgus
                         l                                          l
           786  Rhea Silva                    780  Lycurgus at age 60
                         l                                          l
             771  Romulus                     776  First Olympiad
               
           (a) Capys occurs in the same generation as Laomedon in the pedigree of the Trojan family; Laomedon and Heracles were contemporary since the latter rescued the former's young daughter
       
           Having now shown the possibility, even the likelihood, that a date near 968BC for the Fall of Troy is a better guess than 1184BC and consistent with the Romulus pedigree, we turn again to Britain's legendary Brutus.  In our first look at his pedigrees[5], we noted that a birthdate near 835BC was required for him if those pedigrees were to be stable chronologically.  By accepting the alternate Nennius pedigree which makes Brutus born in the 6th generation after Aeneas (rather than in the 3rd succeeding generation), we can conclude his pedigree is now at least possible.[6]
 
          Additionally, we can now posit that Homer was probably alive at the same time that Telemachus son of Odyssius was an old man; that his source for the Iliad and the Odyssey was quite possibly an eyewitness to the final battle and much of the subsequent journeys of Odyssius.  If Homer were born c. 940BC, he could have gleaned all the hundreds of tiny details, which characterize his two classic poems, directly from Telemachus when the latter was in his 60's.  And put the poems into written form by 860BC.  Most historians conjecture the works had to be passed down solely from memory for over 200 years before being written down in the 9th century BC.  By our redating of the Fall of Troy forward two centuries, it isn't necessary to claim any such prodigioius feats of memory for over 6 generations of subsequent story-tellers.
 
NOTES:
[1] Titus Livius was born in 59BC; he wrote his History of Rome over a 40 year period until his death in 17AD.  His books I-V have been translated as "Livy, The Early History of Rome"
[2] Dionysius of Halicarnassensis lived from c. 60BC to about 7BC; his history is called Roman Antiquities written during the reign of Augustus Caesar.
[3] Eratosthenes was a Greek geographer and mathematician who lived c. 276BC to c. 194BC.  His Chronographiai became the standard by which ancient dates were reckoned
[4] Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio Cocceianus) lived c. 160AD to 230AD.  His Roman History comprised 80 books of which only about 1/3 is now extant.  Book 1 containing the history down to the time of Romulus is now lost, but fragments were incorporated into the work of two later historians:  Joannes Zonaras of c. 1100AD and John Tzetzes of c. 1110-1180AD
[5] See the paper "Brutus, the Legendary Eponym of Britain" elsewhere on this site
[6] In our earlier paper "The Chronology of Eratosthenes", Chart VI in Appendix I shows the pedigree of Brutus from Nennius 18