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Legendary History Prior to 1st Century BC
Beli Mawr and Llyr Llediath in Welsh Pedigrees
The Bartrum "Welsh Genealogies"
Bartrum's "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs"
A study in charting medieval citations
The Evolution of the "Padriarc Brenin" Pedigree
Generational Gaps and the Welsh Laws
Minimum Age for Welsh Kingship in the Eleventh Century
The Lands of the Silures
Catel Durnluc aka Cadell Ddyrnllwg
Ancient Powys
The Royal Family of Powys
The Royal Family of Gwynedd
The 5 Plebian Tribes of Wales
Maxen Wledig of Welsh Legend
Maxen Wledig and the Welsh Genealogies
Anwn Dynod ap Maxen Wledig
Constans I and his 343 Visit to Britain
Glast and the Glastening
Composite Lives of St Beuno
Rethinking the Gwent Pedigrees
The Father of Tewdrig of Gwent
Another Look at Teithfallt of Gwent
Ynyr Gwent and Caradog Freich Fras
Llowarch ap Bran, Lord of Menai
Rulers of Brycheiniog - The Unanswered Questions
Lluan ferch Brychan
The Herbert Family Pedigree
Edwin of Tegeingl and his Family
Angharad, Heiress of Mostyn
Ithel of Bryn in Powys
Idnerth Benfras of Maesbrook
Henry, the Forgotten Son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Muddled Pedigree of Sir John Wynn of Gwydir
The Mysterious Peverel Family
The Clan of Tudor Trevor
The Other "Sir Roger of Powys"
Ancestry of Ieuaf ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor
The Retaking of Northeast Wales
Hedd Molwynog or Hedd ap Alunog of Llanfair Talhearn
"Meuter Fawr" son of Hedd ap Alunog
The Medieval "redating" of Braint Hir
Aaron Paen ap Y Paen Hen
Welsh Claims to Ceri after 1179
The Battle of Mynydd Carn
Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli
Cadafael Ynfyd of Cydewain
Maredudd ap Robert, Lord of Cedewain
Cadwgan of Nannau
Maredudd ap Owain, King of Deheubarth
What Really Happened in Deheubarth in 1022?
Two Families headed by a Rhydderch ap Iestyn
The Era of Llewelyn ap Seisyll
Cynfyn ap Gwerystan, the Interim King
The Consorts and Children of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn
The 1039 Battle at Rhyd y Groes
The First Wife of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Hywel ap Gronwy of Deheubarth
The Brief Life of Gruffudd ap Maredudd
The Other Gwenwynwyn
Eunydd son of Gwenllian
Sandde Hardd of Mortyn
The Floruit of Einion ap Seisyllt
The Enigmatic Elystan Glodrydd
Cowryd ap Cadfan of Dyffryn Clwyd
Owain ap Cadwgan and Nest ferch Rhys - An Historic Fiction?
The "sons" of Owain ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn
The Betrayal by Meirion Goch Revisited
Gwyn Ddistain, seneschal for Llewelyn Fawr
The Men of Lleyn - How They Got There
Trahaearn Goch of Lleyn
Einion vs Iestyn ap Gwrgan - The Conquest of Glamorgan
Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry
Thomas ap Rhodri - Father of Owain "Lawgoch"
The "Malpas" Family in Cheshire
Einion ap Celynin of Llwydiarth
Marchweithian, Lord of Is Aled, Rhufoniog
Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol
Bradwen of Llys Bradwen in Meirionydd
Ednowain ap Bradwen
Sorting out the Gwaithfoeds
Three Men called Iorwerth Goch "ap Maredudd"
The Caradog of Gwynedd With 3 Fathers
Who Was Sir Robert Pounderling?
Eidio Wyllt - What Was His Birthname?
The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg
The Royal Family of Ceredigion
Llewelyn ap Hoedliw, Lord of Is Cerdin
The Ancestry of Owain Glyndwr
Welsh Ancestry of the Tudor Dynasty
Gruffudd ap Rhys, the Homeless Prince
The Children of Lord Rhys
Maredudd Gethin ap Lord Rhys
The 'Next Heir' of Morgan of Caerleon
Pedigree of the ancient Lords of Ial
The Shropshire Walcot Family
Pedigree of "Ednowain Bendew II"
Pedigree of Cynddelw Gam
                                       THE CHILDREN OF LORD RHYS
                                               By Darrell Wolcott
 
        The father of Lord Rhys, Gruffudd ap Rhys ap Tewdwr, had failed to reconstitute the south Wales kingdom of Deheubarth once ruled by his father, and had been forced to give fealty to King Henry I.  When he died in 1137, he held the rank and title Prince of South Wales but was only in possession of the single commote of Caeo in the eastern part of Cantref Mawr, Ystrad Tywy.  His wife, Gwenllian ferch Gruffudd ap Cynan, had been killed in 1136 as she led an army against the Normans while her husband was temporarily away in Gwynedd.  With her were sons Morgan and Maelgwn; Morgan fell in battle and Maelgwn was taken prisioner, never to be heard from again.
 
         Thus there were six orphan sons, aged about 2 to 22, who survived Gruffudd.  The younger boys, Rhys, Maredudd, Owain and Rhys Fychan were probably taken in by one or more of their father's former barons.[1] Anarawd was the eldest of the surviving brothers, followed by Cadell. These men set out to recover the lands over which their grandfather had ruled.  But Anarawd was killed in 1143 and, in 1152, Cadell was ambushed while out hunting in Dyfed.  He was badly injured and left for dead; while he did survive, he went on a pilgrimage to Rome and probably never recovered his health, finally passing away in 1175 after "a long infirmity".  He entrusted his lands to brothers Maredudd and Rhys, who took over the family's quest to restore Welsh rule over Deheubarth.  Maredudd died of natural causes in 1155 at the age of 25, and Rhys continued the quest alone.  Historians, with much more conjecture than evidence, claim Rhys was younger than Maredudd and thus born after 1130.[2]  We suggest he was born nearer 1125, married about 1155 and died in 1197 past the age of 70.          
 
          During the period 1155 until his death in 1197, Rhys proved to be a valiant warrior and skilled diplomat as he both conquered all of the original lands of Deheubarth and was so well-regarded that Henry II named him his justiciar for south Wales in 1172.  It is doubtful, however, that he was widely known as "the Lord Rhys" during his lifetime.  That epithet, likely coined by later Welsh bards is, during his lifetime, absent from the Brut...it simply calls him Rhys ap Gruffudd. 
 
          It seems certain that it was Rhys' intention to keep Deheubarth intact after his death and not become fragmented by the Welsh custom of equal division among his sons.  The first of those sons mentioned by the Brut was Maelgwn, who in 1187 ravaged and burned the town of Tenby in Dyfed.  One suspects it was about this time that Maelgwn learned that his father intended to make his brother Gruffudd his sole heir.  We are told that in 1189, Lord Rhys imprisoned Maelgwn in Dinefwr castle "who was then in rebellion against him".  Shortly afterwards, Gruffudd ap Rhys took his brother from the keep at Dinefwr (without his father's knowledge) and gave him over to the custody of William de Braose, the father-in-law of Gruffudd.  While Lord Rhys liberated Maelgwn in 1192, the two brothers were thereafter bitter enemies.[3]
 
         With this background, we now turn to the chore of identifying each of the children of Lord Rhys, who did in fact dissolve his life's work by fighting to obtain separate shares of Deheubarth.
 
         By his wife Gwenllian, born c. 1140, ferch Madog ap Maredudd of Powys[4], Lord Rhys had 4 sons and two daughters:
 
1.  Maelgwn Hen, born c. 1155.  We suggest he was the eldest son but not the choice of his father to succeed himself.  He is described as fairly short in stature with an impetious temper.  Most would make Gruffudd the eldest son since the Brut says he succeeded to the rule of Deheubarth when Lord Rhys died.  Peter Bartrum and others claim Maelgwn Hen and Maelgwn Fawr were two names for a single son of Lord Rhys by a mistress[5]. Dwnn ii, 99 lists separate men as Maelgwn Fawr and Maelgwn Hen, saying both were the offspring of mistresses.  One source[6] says "graig Maelgwn Hen ap yr arglwydd Rhys oedd Wenllian verch Madog ap Meredydd" and that "she was mam" Maelgwn Ifank mab Maelgwn Hen".  Since that lady was the wife of Lord Rhys, we think "graig" should read "mam" and "she was mam" should read "he was tad" Maelgwn Ieuanc.  Based on this flawed citation, Bartrum claims this was a base son of Lord Rhys who must have married his widow after 1197.  But his widow would have been nearing age 60 and could not have subsequently given birth to a son.  Everything we know of the Maelgwn ap Lord Rhys from the Brut is consistent with him being a legitimate son and full brother of Gruffudd. And an elder brother who was furious that his father passed him over as his sole heir, favoring Gruffudd instead.[7]  Almost immediately after their father died, Maelgwn seized Gruffudd and gave him as a prisioner to the Normans.  Maelgwn ap Rhys died in 1231; his actual wife is unknown.
 
2. Gruffudd, born c. 1157.  The same year Lord Rhys died, Gruffudd was captured and imprisoned by his brother Maelgwn.  In 1198, Maelgwn turned him over to the "Saxons" (read Normans).  Later that year, he was set free...likely because the Normans delighted in dividing the Welsh by setting brother against brother.  The brothers resumed their hostilities, with Gruffudd getting the upper hand until his untimely death in 1201, apparently from natural causes.  He married Maltilda (c. 1170), daughter of William de Braose, Lord of Brycheiniog.[8] He was survived by sons Rhys Ieuanc and Owain, who took up their father's feud with Maelgwn.
 
3.  Rhys Fychan aka Gryg, born c. 1165.  He was first noticed in the Brut in 1195 when he and his brother Maredudd took the castle at Dinefwr.  He battled against his nephews, the sons of Gruffudd, for several years...sometimes as an ally of Gwynedd's Llewelyn Fawr and sometimes siding with King John.  In 1213, he was placed in the king's prison but released in 1215 after giving his son Rhys Fychan as a hostage.  Thereafter, he was called Rhys Gryg and his son later become known as Rhys Mechyll who also named a son Rhys Fychan, usually called Ieuanc.  He married (1) a daughter (c. 1180) of Gilbert de Clare III[9]; (2) Ellyw (c. 1170) ferch Trahaearn ap Gwgan ap Gwgan ap Bleddyn ap Maenyrch[10]; and (3) Gwenllian (c. 1165) ferch Elidyr ap Owain ap Idnerth ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd.[11]  Rhys Gryg died in 1233.
 
4.  Maredudd Gethin, born c. 1170.  After assisting his brother Rhys take Dinefwr in 1195, the Lord Rhys seized both sons and placed them in his prison. While Rhys Gryg was released when his father died, nothing more is heard about Maredudd until he was killed in battle in 1201.  He is said to have married Gwenllian Fychan (c. 1185) ferch Sir Hywel ap Iorwerth ap Owain Wan of Caerleon in Gwent[12]. He left a daughter, Gwenllian[13], and a son, Gruffudd[14].
 
5.  Marged ferch Lord Rhys, born c. 1169.  She married Gwenwynwyn (c. 1155) ap Owain Cyfeiliog[15] of southern Powys about 1182.  Nothing more is known of her, but she was not the mother of Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn.[16]
 
6.  Gwenllian ferch Lord Rhys, born c. 1180.  She married Ednyfed Fychan (c. 1165) the seneschal of Llewelyn Fawr of Gwynedd.  Her death is recorded in 1236[17].  Most sources claim she also married Rhodri ap Owain Gwynedd, but we believe that was a different lady whose name was probably Annes. (see below)
 
           Children of Lord Rhys by various mistresses were:
SONS:
 
7.  Maelgwn Fawr, born c. 1150.  His mother was Gwerfyl (c. 1135) ferch Llewelyn ap Rhys ap Morda Frych ap Cydrich ap Gwaithfoed of Cantref Bychan[18].  Some sources claim he married Gwenllian, his step-mother, the wife of Lord Rhys.  That lady was a half-generation older than Maelgwn Fawr and would have been about 57 years old when Lord Rhys left her a widow.  Those sources also say this couple were the parents of Maelgwn Ieuanc.  However, the deeds of Maelgwn Ieuanc appear to identify him as a son of Maelgwn Hen and born during the lifetime of Lord Rhys.  This base son, also called Maelgwn, is probably wholly absent from the Brut and may have been called "Fawr" simply to describe him as a man large in stature, or because he was the eldest of Lord Rhys' sons.  The Brut never calls its Maelgwn ap Lord Rhys by any nickname; we arbitrarily call the legitimate Maelgwn "Hen" since he had a son Maelgwn Fychan or Ieuanc (the younger).  Accordingly, we think Lord Rhys had both a base son and a legitimate son named Maelgwn, but nothing except the name of his mother is known about the base son. The fact that his mother was a near neighbor of Lord Rhys' paternal home in Caeo argues for this child to have been conceived before his marriage.
 
8.  Maredudd Ddall (the blind), born c. 1157.  He was, as a child, given to King Henry II as a hostage to insure the fidelity of Lord Rhys.  When Rhys joined the other Welsh princes in rebellion and defeated the king's army at Corwen in 1165, an angry Henry II had the boy blinded and sent back to his father.  His mother was Gwenddydd ferch Cynddelw ap y Bochawc of Emlyn[19], but one source[20] says Cynddelw ap Brochwel.  Her further ancestry is unknown.  This Maredudd was a natal brother of Tangwystl mentioned below[21].  He lived a long, but uneventful life, dying in 1239.
 
9.  Cadwaladr Lwgr, born c. 1158.  He is often identified as the son born of a niece of Lord Rhys, whom we call Meurig (see below).  But Cadwaladr's obit is recorded in 1186 and he left a son, Einion ap Cadwaladr of Brycheiniog[22], so he could hardly be the son born in 1173.
 
10.  Owain, born c. 1159.  His mother is cited as Isabel ferch Iorwerth Fodrychan[23] and as Sabel ferch Ivan Hir[24], neither of which has been further identified.  He received lands in Caerwedros, Ceredigion and died in 1191, leaving a son named Maredudd. His wife is unknown.
 
11.  Maredudd, born c. 1160.  His mother was a daughter (c. 1145) ferch Dafydd Fras ap Maredudd Fras ap Rhydderch ap Tewdwr Mawr[25].  He was appointed Archdeacon of Ceredegion and dedicated his life to the church, dying in 1227. His wife is not cited, but children are assigned to him.
 
12.  Hywel Sais, born c. 1165.  His mother was Ystedur (c. 1150) ferch Caradog ap Llowrodd Dyfed ap Gwynfardd Dyfed[26].  This lady is called a "foster sister" of Lord Rhys since, as an orphaned child, Lord Rhys had been reared by Caradog.  Hywel was given as a hostage to King Henry II when yet a child, but was released back to his father in 1171.  In 1175, Lord Rhys hoped to curry favor with the king and sent Hywel to serve Henry II while the latter was attending to his lands in France.  After returning from that assignment, he was dubbed "Sais" because he could speak the language of the "Englishmen".  He held lands in Dyfed where he took the castle of Wizo the Flemish man in 1193.  The following year, in an attempt to control his rebellous sons, Lord Rhys attacked Hywel Sais and Maelgwn in Dyfed but was captured by those sons.  Without the knowledge or consent of Maelgwn, Hywel Sais set their father free.  In 1204, Hywel Sais was killed by Maelgwn's men.  He left behind three sons: Cynan, Madog and Rhys and a daughter, Angharad.  His wife is unknown.
 
13.  Cynwrig, born c. 1165.  His mother was Nest (c. 1150) ferch Gruffudd ap Gwyn ap Gwalchmai ap Cydrich ap Gwaithfoed of Cantref Bychan[27].  Her brother, Cadifor, and his 4 sons were captured and slain by Maelgwn ap Lord Rhys in 1205.  Cynwrig met Gerald of Wales during his 1188 Journey Through Wales, who described him as tall, handsome and with fair curly hair.  Gerald preached a sermon to Lord Rhys and his sons Maelgwn, Gruffudd and Cynwrig but none of them elected to "take up the cross" when implored to do so[28].  One version of the Brut claims Cynwrig was also blinded with his brother Maredudd, but the text was corruptly translated.[29]  He was in fine spirits and leading a small warband of "lightly armed young men" when Gerald encountered him in 1188.  In his 1978 translation of Gerald's Tour, Lewis Thorpe footnoted Cynwrig as Lord Rhys' third son, probably because only 3 sons met with Gerald[30]. 
 
14.  Morgan, born c. 1170.  His mother is cited as Nest ferch Caradog Fychan ap Caradog, but her further ancestry is not known. [31] This Morgan served as penteulu for his half-brother Gruffudd during the period 1198 to 1201.  He died in 1251 of old age at Strada Florida.  No issue is known.
 
15.  Meurig, born in 1173.  His mother was Gwenllian (c. 1155) ferch Maredudd ap Gruffudd ap Rhys ap Tewdwr[32], thus a daughter of Lord Rhys' brother.  She was likely a base daughter, possibly born posthumously since her father died in 1155 at age 25.  He is the only son of Lord Rhys whose date of birth is recorded in the Brut, probably because the cleric who wrote the entry for 1173 wished to emphasize the incestual nature of the relationship between Lord Rhys and this Gwenllian. Most historians say he is the same man as Cadwaladr Lwgr mentioned earlier, but offer nothing credible to overrule the earliest source.  Nothing is known of Meurig save his birth.
 
16.  Rhys Gochyn, born c. 1175.  This man in known only from the medieval pedigree manuscripts, where his son Rhys Goch (c. 1205) is cited as the husband of Gwen (c. 1220) ferch Angharad (c. 1200) ferch Hywel Sais[33].  This Gwen was a daughter of his (Rhys Goch's) first-cousin who had married a grandson of Sir Roger of Powys[34].
 
DAUGHTERS:
 
17.  Catryn, born c. 1151.  This lady was given as wife to Cadifor ap Dyfnwal[35], a warrior for Lord Rhys who, it is said, took the castle at Cardigan by scaling its walls in 1164. Cadifor was born c. 1140.
 
18.  Unnamed daughter, born c. 1155.  She married Lucas de Hoda of Cemais[36], a Norman knight born c. 1145 said to be a follower of Martin of Tours.  Her mother is unknown, and she might have been the same lady as one of Lord Rhys' known daughters.
 
19.  Unnamed daughter, born c. 1158.  The Brut entry for 1175 lists several men whom Lord Rhys took to the king's council in Gloucester because they had incurred the king's displeasure.  One man is identified as "Einion ap Rhys, his other son-in-law, of Gwerthrynion".  Probably descended from the clan of Elystan Glodrydd, this Einion is not further identified nor is his wife named.  Since that daughter was already married in 1175, she could not have been born much later than 1160.  But she might have been the same lady as one of his base daughters whose name we know and who later married a second husband.
 
20.  Susanna, born c. 1160.  She married Einion of Porth (c. 1150) ap Einion Clud ap Madog ap Idnerth ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrydd. He was another of the men Lord Rhys took to the king's council in 1175 and described as "Einion Clud (sic), his son-in-law, of Elfael."  But Gerald of Wales, in his 1188 journey, says "next came Einion, son of Einion Clud, prince of Elfael....who spoke to Rhys who was present and whose daughter he had married.."[37].  While neither early source gives this daughter's name, she is called Susanna in a c. 1280 tract[38].  Again, the lady could not have been born later than c. 1160 as she was already married in 1175.  Her mother is unknown.
 
21.  Tangwystl, born c. 1165.  She had the same mother as Maredudd Ddall[39], the only known instance where Lord Rhys had two base children by the same mistress.  It is possible that after the lady's son had been blinded, Lord Rhys determined to give her another child; it had been his behavour which caused King Henry II to blind her son while held as a hostage.  She married (1) Maredudd (c. 1155) ap Rhydderch ap Bleddri Latimer ap Bleddri ap Cadifor Fawr[40]; and (2) Einion (c. 1160) ap Llywarch ap Bran of Menai[41].  While we assign both marriages to a single lady, it is not impossible that Lord Rhys had two daughters both named Tangwystl.
 
22.  Angharad, born c. 1169.  She married William fitz Robert fitz Martin of Cemais[42].  He died in 1209 and was born c. 1155. A descendant of Angharad and William was David Martin, Bishop of Mynyw from 1296 to 1328.  Her mother is unknown.
 
23.  Lleuci, born c. 1170. She married Owain Foel (c. 1155) ap Caradog ap Owain Fab ap Rhydderch ap Tewdwr Mawr[43].  Her mother is unknown.
 
24.  Annes, born c. 1174.  According to Gerald of Wales, when he met Rhodri ap Owain Gwynedd in 1188, "only a short time before Rhodri had taken the daughter of Prince Rhys as his mistress". Gerald did not name the lady[44].  Some medieval genealogists[45] say it was Gwenllian ferch Lord Rhys and that she was married to Rhodri before she married Ednyfed Fychan.  We suggest Gwenllian, who married Ednyfed Fychan about 1195, was under 10 years of age in 1188 and would prefer the source which calls the mistress of Rhodri "Annes"[46].  And we suspect Rhodri, born c. 1140, already had sons her age in 1188, by an unknown wife. One source, which calls this daughter "Gwenllian", says she was the "graig" (wife) of Cynan ap Rhodri[47].  While that is chronologically impossible, she may have been the mother of Cynan.[48] 
 
25.  Gwladys, born c. 1180.  She married Hen William Caentwn, also called William Cantington and William Canton[49].  He was born c. 1170 and his obit is recorded in the Brut in 1230 as William Canton.  Her mother is unknown. 
 
           Others mentioned as children of Lord Rhys include a son Cadwgan[50] which is probably an error for Cadwaladr; daughters Elinor[51] and Marged[52] who, by their marriages, must have been born before the year 1100 and might have been children of Rhys ap Tewdwr; and a daughter Gwenllian mentioned in the Brut in 1190 as dying that year "the flower and beauty of all the women of Wales".  This might have been Gwenllian the wife of Lord Rhys; it is difficult to explain the praise given the lady in her obit should she have been just another base daughter of Lord Rhys (the Gwenllian who was born in wedlock did not die until 1236).  This is particularly true if the daughter we call Annes, but others call Gwenllian, was actually named Gwenllian.  It seems incredulous that such a lady, a mistress of Rhodri ap Owain Gwynedd and in an incestious relationship (Lord Rhys and Rhodri were first-cousins), would merit such praise from the cleric who penned the Brut entry.
 
         All the estimated birthdates which we list are merely our guesses based on (1) the probably birthdate of their mother, or (2) the likely birthdate of their spouse, or (3) events recorded in the Brut in which they participated.  Neither these dates, nor the order in which we list the children, should be taken as more than "probable".
 
         The possibility that one or more of those children in our list is the same person (under a different name) cannot be excluded. Pedigrees abound where females are called by differing names, depending on the source[53]. A daughter whose husband died early almost certainly could be expected to wed another.  In addition, those 4 names mentioned at the end of our list might have been children of Lord Rhys if we assume that incorrect spouses were cited for two of those ladies.  Accordingly, there can be no definitive answer to the question "how many children did Lord Rhys have?"
 

NOTES:
[1] Pen. 131, 209 says that Caradog ap Llawrodd of Dyfed was the foster father "dad maeth" of Lord Rhys and the natal father of Ystedur, the mother of Hywel Sais ap Lord Rhys
[2] Dictionary of Welsh Biography p. 838 says Lord Rhys was younger than his brother Maredudd and born in 1132.  This conjecture appears solely based upon the obit notice in the 1155 Brut entry which described Maredudd as "lord of Ceredigion and Ystrad Tywy and Dyfed", and the fact that, in 1153 when Cadell ap Gruffudd turned his lands over to his brothers, the name of Maredudd preceeds that of Rhys. In fact, the 1153 entry makes the brothers co-lords and the choice of listing their names in alphabetical order is very thin evidence on which to base a filial order.  The marriage of Lord Rhys to a lady born c. 1140 and having sons born c. 1155/57 argues for his birthdate c. 1125, as does his first appearance as a warrior in 1146.
[3] Gerald of Wales "The Journey Through Wales", book II chapter 2, said Gruffudd was forced to hand over Llanhyfer Castle to his brother Maelgwn "the man he hated most in all the world"
[4] ibid book I chapter 1
[5] "Plant yr Arglwydd Rhys" published in the Journal of the National Library of Wales, Vol XIV, p. 102
[6] Pen. 131, 209  This is the same source which called the mistress of Rhodri ap Owain Gwynedd the "wife" of Cynan ap Rhodri when only "mother" could have been chronologically possible
[7] ByT entry for 1197 says "after the death of the Lord Rhys, Gruffudd, his son, ruled his kingdom after him.
[8] ByT 1210
[9] ByT 1219
[10] Pen. 128, 47a & 883a
[11] Pen. 134, 390
[12] Harl. 1975, 21
[13] Harl. 4181, 210
[14] Pen. 138, 553
[15] Pen. 131, 209
[16] See the paper "The Other Gwenwynwyn" elsewhere on this site
[17] Annales Cambriae manuscript B
[18] Pen. 131, 209
[19] Pen. 131, 209
[20] Dwnn ii, 99
[21] Pen. 131, 209
[22] Pen. 131, 209
[23] Pen. 131, 209
[24] Dwnn ii, 99
[25] Pen. 131, 209 says she was a daughter of Dafydd Fras ap Rhydderch ap Cadifor ap Dinawal, but that is chronologically impossible;her father was probably the Dafydd ap Maredudd Fras cited in Dwnn i, 95, 236 & 240
[26] Pen. 131, 209
[27] Pen 131, 209
[28] op cit. Gerald of Wales, Book II chapter 4
[29] see notes to page 63, lines 40-64, in Thomas Jones' translation of Brut Y Tywysogyon, Peniarth Ms 20 version.
[30] Penguin Books edition, 1978, note 326 on p. 178
[31] Dwnn ii, 99; Pen 131,209; ByT 1251
[32] Brenhinedd y Saeson calls the son Meurig; other versions of the Brut also note his birth to a niece of Lord Rhys, but do not name him.  Pen. 131, 209 says this son was Cadwaladr Lwgr.  See our treatment of that son in the main text of this paper
[33] Pen. 128, 86b
[34] Pen. 131, 209 
[35] Dwnn i, 38, 52, 65, 143 & 227
[36] Bodleian Add. C178, 26
[37] op cit. Gerald of Wales Book I, chapter 1
[38] Chronica de Wallia in Exeter Cathedral Ms. 3514 reproduced in the Journal of the Library of Wales, Vol XIV, pp. 101-102
[39] Pen. 131, 209
[40] ibid
[41] Harl. 2289, 246
[42] op cit. Chronica de Wallia
[43] Pen. 131, 209
[44] op cit. Gerald of Wales, Book II chapter 7
[45] Dwnn ii, 99
[46] Dwnn ii, 69
[47] Pen. 131, 209
[48] This son of Rhodri is unknown to any other source
[49] Pen. 131, 209
[50] Dwnn ii, 99
[51] Harl. 2414, 21 says Moriddig Warwyn ap Drymboenig married Elinor ferch Lord Rhys, but Moriddig was born c. 1080 and must have married an earlier Elinor
[52] Harl. 1975, 46 says Cadwgan ap Drymboenig married Marged ferch Lord Rhys, but Cadwgan was born c. 1085 and must have married an earlier Marged
[53] Pedigrees drafted by a family into which a lady married, as opposed to those written by her birth family, were more interested in showing the lady's blood line than in getting her birth name correct